By M. Bacon
This ebook introduces geophysicists and geologists to the means of examining 3-D seismic facts. the themes it covers contain uncomplicated structural interpretation and map-making; using three-D visualization equipment; interpretation of seismic amplitudes; the new release and use of AVO and acoustic impedance datasets; and time-lapse seismic mapping. Written via expert geophysicists with decades of operating event within the oil undefined, the booklet may be vital for graduate scholars, researchers, and new entrants into the petroleum undefined.
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Additional info for 3-D Seismic Interpretation
5 km) is performedafterDMO and constantvelocily migrationin step 19. Thereis an excellentarticle on the benelitsof DMO by Deregowski(1986)andmoredetailon algorithmsin thenotesby Hale ( 1991). One of the benefitsof DMO is that it takesa constantoffset sectionand transforms I ( '' :l .. Generallyone usesa velocity that is closeto the slowest seenin the section(1480 m/s for water velocity). It is commonpracticeto performthe final velocity analysisat a spatialinteryalof 250-500m thoughthis too is The spacingneededdependson reducingin the desireto retainthe higherfrequencies.
The rays are reflected at right angles to the surface. It can be seen that the blue rays from the right hand of the syncline are sometimes recorded to the left of the green rays reflected from the left side of the syncline. This gives a complicated bow tie pattem in the cofiesponding time section. The effect of migration is to move the events back to their true subsurface location. The solutiontothisproblemis depth migration, which correctly handlesvelocity variation. 33 Example of eventscausinga stackingconflict.
Sphericaldivergencegain conections 9. Deconvolutionbetbre stack 10. Shot interpolation to double fold in CMP gathers I I . Radon demultiple on interpolatedgathers 12. High-frequencynoise removal 13. Drop of interpolatedtraces 14. 5 m on near to 50 m on far offsets 15. Sort to common offset 16. Dip moveout (including approximateNMO) halving the number ofoffset planeson output 17. Pre-stack time migration using constant velocity 1600 m/s 18. InverseNMO 19. 5 km grid) 20. NMO Processinghereattercontinuing on three volumes: 21 .
3-D Seismic Interpretation by M. Bacon