By Peter Gatrell
"... a sign contribution to a starting to be literature on a phenomenon that has turn into tragically pervasive within the twentieth century.... This hugely unique account combines exemplary empirical learn with the sensible program of assorted tips on how to discover the far-reaching ramifications of 'a entire empire walking.'" -- Vucinich Prize citation"An very important contribution not just to fashionable Russian background but additionally to an ongoing repositioning of Russia in broader eu and global ancient processes.... elegantly written... hugely innovative." -- Europe-Asia experiences Drawing on formerly unused archival fabric in Russia, Latvia, and Armenia and on insights from social and demanding idea, Peter Gatrell considers the origins of displacement and its political implications and offers an in depth research of humanitarian tasks and the relationships among refugees and the groups during which they settled.
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Extra info for A Whole Empire Walking: Refugees in Russia during World War I (Indiana-Michigan Series in Russian and East European Studies)
Local police and village authorities, he continued, were powerless to prevent refugees from roaming the countryside and looting at will. 132 Ministers anticipated many more such encounters when refugees eventually settled in the Russian interior. 30 A Whole Empire Walking The unwillingness of refugees to keep to the routes that were supposedly earmarked for them represented another form of disorderly behavior. 133 This brings us to the question of what belongings refugees could take with them.
Whereas the earlier law exempted lands that had been granted to colonists at the time of their initial settlement, the December law subjected these lands as well to expropriation. Families of German descent who had lived for generations in Volynia, Kiev, and Podol’ia, as well as in the Volga region, were unceremoniously shipped to Siberia or central Asia, in a brutal foretaste of the horrors in®icted upon the next generation under the Stalin regime. We shall see later how they fared in their new location.
99 26 A Whole Empire Walking The Caucasian front presented an equally disturbed picture. The Russian army crossed the border in early May 1915. Held up by a Turkish counteroffensive, Russian commanders ordered troops to withdraw from the region around Van. 101 Those who remained behind after July suffered a terrible fate. Using as a pretext the events at Van, and in accordance with emergency legislation ordering the deportation of communities suspected of espionage or treason (or whose presence was not conducive to military effectiveness), the Turkish authorities turned on the entire community.
A Whole Empire Walking: Refugees in Russia during World War I (Indiana-Michigan Series in Russian and East European Studies) by Peter Gatrell