By Lorenza Saitta, Jean-Daniel Zucker
▓ Book's better half Website
▓ Abstraction is a primary mechanism underlying either human and synthetic conception, illustration of data, reasoning and studying. This mechanism performs a vital function in lots of disciplines, significantly laptop Programming, traditional and synthetic imaginative and prescient, advanced platforms, synthetic Intelligence and laptop studying, paintings, and Cognitive Sciences. This publication first presents the reader with an outline of the notions of abstraction proposed in numerous disciplines via evaluating either commonalities and adjustments. After discussing the characterizing houses of abstraction, a proper version, the KRA version, is gifted to trap them. This version makes the idea of abstraction simply appropriate through the creation of a collection of abstraction operators and abstraction styles, reusable throughout varied domain names and functions. it's the effect of abstraction in man made Intelligence, complicated platforms and computing device studying which creates the center of the booklet. A common framework, in accordance with the KRA version, is gifted, and its pragmatic energy is illustrated with 3 case reviews: Model-based prognosis, Cartographic Generalization, and studying Hierarchical Hidden Markov Models.
∙ Collects, describes and compares a variety of ways to abstraction proposed within the literature of varied fields
∙ Discusses why abstraction performs a key function in AI artifacts, utilizing concrete examples, reminiscent of cartographic generalization and human/robot interaction
∙ presents a conceptualization framework to layout powerful systems
▒ Book's Preface
When we all started scripting this ebook we have been conscious of the complexity of the task,
but we didn't think that it'll take us virtually 3 years to accomplish it.
Furthermore, in the course of the research and comparability of the literature from different
fields, it sincerely emerged that vital effects were completed, yet that much
more vital ones are nonetheless out of succeed in. Then, the spirit of the ebook replaced, by
itself, from the meant evaluation of the previous to a stimulus for the longer term. We
would be at liberty if the reader, rather than being content material with the tips we propose,
would take them as a motivation and place to begin to move past them.
We current a wide choice of works on abstraction in different disciplines;
nonetheless many appropriate contributions to the sector were unavoidably left out,
owing to the sheer volume of pages they'd fill. We say sorry for the missing
In this booklet we current a version of abstraction, the KRA version, yet this is often not
the middle of the e-book. It has a restricted scope and serves major reasons: on the
one hand it exhibits that numerous past proposals of abstraction theories have a
common root and will be dealt with inside of a unified framework, and, at the different, it
offers a computational atmosphere for acting abstraction by way of using a collection of
available, domain-independent operators (programs). in truth, there's nonetheless a gap
between basic abstraction theories, ordinarily dependent logical formulations of representation
changes, and urban ways that seriously depend upon particular domain
characteristics. The KRA version is intended to be anything in among: the
domain-independence of the abstraction operators achieves either generality (it can
cover a large spectrum of functions and alertness domains), and synergy (by
instantiating in several contexts a few code written only one time).
Independently of the version, we think that the elemental rules on which it relies
are extra vital than the version itself. those principles are definitely controversial; some
reader may possibly imagine that our view of abstraction is strictly what he/she has always
looked for, while another may well imagine that abstraction is completely something
else. either reactions are welcome: what concerns is to set off curiosity within the subject
and stimulate extra research.
The booklet isn't really meant to be a textbook: it really is specific to scientists operating on
or utilizing abstraction recommendations, with no dilemma of fields. machine scientists,
Artificial Intelligence researchers, artists, cognitive scientists, mathematicians, and curious minds can learn the ebook. a few components are extra formalized, they usually may
look complicated at the beginning sight. despite the fact that, we think that the best a part of the
content is graspable through intuition.
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Extra info for Abstraction in Artificial Intelligence and Complex Systems
H2 of Appendix H] Thus, abstract art does not aim at representing the world as it appears, but rather at composing works that are purposefully non-representational and subjective. The use of non-figurative patterns is not new, as many of them appear on pottery and textiles from pre-historical times. However, these patterns were elements of decoration, and did not have necessarily the ambition to be called “art”. A great impulse to the abandon of faithfulness to reality, especially in painting, was given by the advent of photography.
In connection with the above classification of abstraction types, Barsalou introduces three properties of abstraction: Interpretation, Structured Representation, and Dynamic Realization. ” Moreover, concepts are usually not interpreted in isolation, but they are connected via relationships; then, abstractions assemble components of experience into compound representations that interpret complex structures in the world. Finally, abstraction offers dynamic realization, in the sense that it manifests itself in a variety of ways that makes it difficult to define it univocally.
By looking at the history of Mathematics, Ferrari acknowledges that abstract objects have been characterized by a certain degree of both generalization and decontextualization. However, he points out that maybe their primary role is in creating new concepts, when, specifically, a (possibly complex) process or relation are reinterpreted as (possibly simpler) objects, as in Antonelli’s approach [19, 20]. An example is provided by the arithmetic operations, which, at the beginning, are learned as procedures, but then become objects whose properties (for instance, associativity) can be investigated.
Abstraction in Artificial Intelligence and Complex Systems by Lorenza Saitta, Jean-Daniel Zucker