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Additional info for Advances in Computers, Vol. 24
14 Introduction The preoccupations of those doing symbolic computation have inﬂuenced their favoured programming languages. Whereas many system programmers favour C, numerical analysts FORTRAN and so on, symbolic programmers usually prefer higher-level languages that make typical symbolic operations more convenient, freeing the programmer from explicit details of memory representation etc. We’ve chosen to use Objective CAML (OCaml) as the vehicle for the programming examples in this book. Our code does not use any of OCaml’s more exotic features, and should be easy to port to related functional languages such as F , Standard ML or Haskell.
11, for example). 5 manual (McCarthy 1962). However, such was the popularity of S-expressions that M-expressions were seldom implemented and never caught on. Related in his speech to the 1985 International Joint Conference on Artiﬁcial Intelligence. html. 14 Introduction The preoccupations of those doing symbolic computation have inﬂuenced their favoured programming languages. Whereas many system programmers favour C, numerical analysts FORTRAN and so on, symbolic programmers usually prefer higher-level languages that make typical symbolic operations more convenient, freeing the programmer from explicit details of memory representation etc.
For example, the English word ‘is’ can mean ‘has the property of being’ (‘4 is even’), or it can mean ‘is the same as’ (‘2 + 2 is 4’). This example and others like it have often generated philosophical confusion. Once we have a precise symbolism for logical concepts (such as Boole’s algebra of logic) we can simply say that two arguments have the same form if they are both instances of the same formal expression, consistently replacing variables by other propositions. And we can use the formal language to make a mathematically precise deﬁnition of logically valid arguments.
Advances in Computers, Vol. 24