By Renata Dmowska
A transparent exposition of the new release T waves by means of earthquakes, the tension accumulation version, and seismic ray tracing and wavefront monitoring in laterally heterogeneous media.
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Extra resources for Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 49
Johnson et al. (1968) initially attributed its origin to sea surface roughness (Fig. 7), while Keenan and Merriam (1991) later suggested underside scattering by sea ice in the Arctic Ocean, an interpretation obviously limited to polar regions. Later, and most decisively, Fox et al. (1994) invoked broad-band scattering by a rough seafloor in the general framework of modal propagation, which forms the basis of the presently consensual interpretation of the abyssal T phase. 3. T WAVES IN THE M ODE F ORMALISM Modal theory envisions T waves as the superposition of a discrete, albeit in principle infinite, number of modes of surface waves guided by the oceanic column, and in particular by the SOFAR channel.
2003) introduced the concept of the T -Phase Energy Flux (TPEF), which mimics the estimated energy E E developed by Newman and Okal (1998) for body waves. , a real-time “quick-and-dirty” single-station estimate ignoring such source details as focal geometry and exact depth. Specifically, given a seismic record of the vertical ground motion u(t) of a T phase, Okal et al. (2003) define 2 TPEF = ρα u(t) ˙ dt, (5) W where ρ and α are the density and P -wave velocity of the receiver medium, and W is an appropriate time window containing the T phase.
3. T WAVES IN THE M ODE F ORMALISM Modal theory envisions T waves as the superposition of a discrete, albeit in principle infinite, number of modes of surface waves guided by the oceanic column, and in particular by the SOFAR channel. The fundamental framework of this approach was developed by Pekeris (1948). Given a flat-layered structure featuring translational symmetry along the horizontal x and y directions, the potential φ of the elastic wave in the water is sought at each angular frequency ω as a cylindrical wave radiating out of the polar axis r = 0: φ(r, z, t) = (z)H0(1) (kr) e−iωt , (1) 20 OKAL (1) where H0 is the Hankel function of first kind and order 0, and d2 (z) ω2 − k2 + dz2 v 2 (z) (z) = 0, satisfies (2) v being the local velocity of sound, which can be a priori a function of depth z.
Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 49 by Renata Dmowska