By Andre Gaudreault
On the flip of the 20 th century, cinema was once fast developing itself as a sound kind of well known entertainment.The essays in American Cinema 1890-1909 discover and outline how the making of movies flowered into an that will ultimately turn into the vital leisure establishment of the area. starting with all of the early sorts of photos that moved, this quantity tells the tale of the discovery and consolidation of some of the tactics that gave upward thrust to what we now name cinema. by way of studying the battles over patents, construction, exhibition, and the reception of movie, readers find out how going to the flicks turned a social culture in American society. during those 20 years, cinema succeeded either in constructing itself between different leisure and tutorial media and in updating numerous different types of spectacle.
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Additional info for American Cinema 1890-1909: Themes and Variations (The Screen Decades Series)
Chicago and Ohio were prominent among city and state governments that, unlike the federal government, instituted censorship. In 1909 the ﬁlm industry itself introduced the National Board of Censorship, which reviewed ﬁlms and suggested changes, similar to self-regulating boards that would later appear during the Hollywood era. This organization, still in existence, later changed its name to the National Board of Review to emphasize that it had no power to legally ban a ﬁlm. The industrial crisis sparked by the nickelodeon revolution came largely from the fact that the production side of the industry had lost control over INTRODUCTION 17 the exhibition and distribution sides.
Isn’t it true that cinema is not simply the projection on a screen of photographic images that give the illusion of movement? Above all, cinema is a complex sociocultural phenomenon rather than something one “invents” (since it cannot be patented). The cinema is a phenomenon that is gradually and collectively institutionalized. The invention of animated views (by Edison and Dickson) and the invention of the Cinématographe and the processes it competed with (the Panoptikon, the Phantoscope, and the Bioskop) may very well have occurred in the ﬁnal years of the nineteenth century, but the institutionalization of cinema is a process that occurred in the early twentieth century, several years after the invention of the devices behind it.
After leaving New Mexico, Raff set up one of the ﬁrst banks in Guthrie in the recently opened Oklahoma Territory. In Oklahoma he reaped new proﬁts from oil prospectors. With his pockets well-lined, he retired from prospecting and with his brother-in-law, Frank Gammon, took a ﬂyer in the phonograph business. Raff joined the Chicago Central Phonograph Company in late 1892 or early 1893, and it was probably Erastus Benson who introduced him to the phonograph. Benson had made money in mining and probably felt a kinship with the young prospector.
American Cinema 1890-1909: Themes and Variations (The Screen Decades Series) by Andre Gaudreault