By Giancarlo Lancini, Francesco Parenti, Gian Gualberto Gallo (auth.)
In this translation of the Italian moment version, the authors supply a finished account of the present wisdom on antibiotics. They concisely describe how quite a few medical disciplines are keen on antibiotics learn, improvement, and use. Their paintings additionally discusses the economic and scientific improvement of recent antibiotics, in addition to the questions and controversies with regards to the functionality of antibiotics in nature. Antibiotics is richly illustrated with transparent chemical constructions, drawings, diagrams, and synoptical tables.
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Extra resources for Antibiotics: A Multidisciplinary Approach
1. General Aspects An antibiotic is an inhibitor of microbial population growth. , from duplication of cellular material and subsequent division of the cell into two daughter cells. For an antibiotic to affect the metabolism of a microbial cell, it must 1. Enter the cell and reach the site of action 2. Bind physically to a cellular structure (target molecule) involved in a process essential for maintenance of cell growth or homeostasis, and 3. Markedly inhibit this process At the cellular Ievel, as already described in Chapter 2, an antibiotic can be bactericidal or bacteriostatic.
Lt is noteworthy that with very active antibiotics (MIC values of nanograms), particularly when lipophilic, a high percentage of mole- 30 Chapter 2 cules are absorbed by the test tube wall, especially if the tubes are plastic. Thus, the measured activity appears lower than the real one. , the activity appears to increase on addition of even small quantities of serum. In fact, albumin, which is itself absorbed on the tube wall, prevents the absorption of the antibiotic. This phenomenon can be avoided by the use of siliconized tubes.
It has been pointed out, previously, that in the determination of the antibiotic concentration by the agar diffusion method the critical factor influencing the size of the halo is the inoculum density. For this reason, it is essential to alternate on the same plate the disks or the solutions of the products under examination with those of the Standards. Another important factor, already mentioned, is the diffusion rate of the antibiotic. , 1 h), to allow an adequate diffusion before activating the growth of the microorganism at its optimal temperature.
Antibiotics: A Multidisciplinary Approach by Giancarlo Lancini, Francesco Parenti, Gian Gualberto Gallo (auth.)