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By Anthony Ellison

ISBN-10: 0007124252

ISBN-13: 9780007124251

ISBN-10: 000714427X

ISBN-13: 9780007144273

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5 In any species, the more electronegative atom will be assigned a negative oxidation number and the less electronegative atom assigned a positive oxidation number. 6 Some elements are used as reference points when assigning oxidation number because they nearly always have invariable oxidation numbers in their compounds: Na, K +1 Mg, Ca +2 Al +3 H +1 (except in metal hydrides) F –1 Cl –1 (except in compounds with oxygen and fluorine) O –2 (except in peroxides, superoxides and fluorides) 39 R EDOX R EACTIONS (3) Example What is the oxidation number of iodine in the following species?

1) (c) Sodium iodide. (1) (d) What do these observations tell you about the relative ease of oxidation of the hydrogen halides? (2) 10 Sea water contains aqueous bromide ions. Chlorine gas is used in the extraction of bromine from this source. (a) Give the ionic equation for the reaction between chlorine gas and bromide ions, including state symbols. (2) (b) Explain which of the elements, chlorine or bromine, is the stronger oxidising agent in terms of electron transfer. (2) The answers are on page 115.

With steam, however, magnesium burns brightly to produce magnesium oxide and hydrogen. Mg(s) + H2O(g) MgO(s) + H2(g) Because the reactivity of the metals increases down the group, the remaining metals react vigorously with cold water. 48 T HE P ERIODIC TABLE (5) Example Ba(s) + 2H2O(l) Ba(OH)2(aq) + H2(g) The metal hydroxide is often produced as a suspension in water. Solubility of group 2 hydroxides and sulphates Solubility data for group 2 hydroxides in water at 298 K are given below. 4 × 10–3 Ba(OH)2 15 × 10–3 As the group is descended, the solubility of the group 2 hydroxides increases.

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AS Chemistry (Instant Revision) by Anthony Ellison

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