By Celso B. Gomes, Klaus Keil
With a short, basic advent at the importance, category, Mineralogy, Bulk Composition, and popularity of Stone Meteorites
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6 show that in the presence of molecular oxygen, Fe 2+ and S2- in pyrite are oxidized by oxygen to produce solid iron hydroxides and oxyhydroxides as well as dissolved sulfate and hydrogen ions. Clearly, oxygen and Fe3+ are the major oxidants of pyrite (Singer and Stumm 1970; Evangelou 1998). e. Fe3+, oxygen or pyrite), or the pH of the weathering solution is significantly raised. 6) have also been referred to as the AMD engine (Fig. 2). Pyrite, Fe3+ and oxygen represent the fuel, oxygen is also the starter engine, and Fe 3+ hydroxides, sulfuric acid and heat come out of the exhaust pipe of the sulfidic waste.
Mining, crushing and milling of pyrite-bearing rock to fine particle sizes, for the purpose of metal extraction, vastly increase the pyrite surface area and potentially expose more pyrite to oxidation and weathering. However, crushing and mill- CHAPTER 2 . Sulfidic Mine Wastes ing of pyritic materials do not necessarily increase the oxidation rate of pyrite in waste rock dumps. This is because coarse-grained pyritic wastes have more pore space and allow greater oxygen movement into the wastes. Consequently, acid generation in coarse-grained wastes may occur to a greater depth than in fine-grained wastes.
Gold mining and extraction have been with us for over 3 000 years. In the past much of the gold has been exploited either by physically concentrating the gold particles and/or by applying mercury. From the late 19th century onwards, mercury was no longer used since cyanide leaching was invented which allowed large-scale gold mining operations. 3. 1 . Introduction to Mine Wastes Historic Mining in Australia and Its Environmental Impacts Introduction Australia has been a major mining nation for more than 150 years.
Brazilian Stone Meteorites by Celso B. Gomes, Klaus Keil