Get North Sea Climate: based on observations from ships and PDF

By C.G. Korevaar

ISBN-10: 9400919824

ISBN-13: 9789400919822

ISBN-10: 9401073864

ISBN-13: 9789401073868

The desire for climatological info of the North Sea has elevated in the past years. the rise in offshore and leisure actions can profit drastically from such facts. which will meet this desire climate observations made by way of ships and lightvessels within the North Sea were processed largely, which has led to loads of tables, charts, and so forth. with climatological info. This e-book provides a variety of those info, within which the emphasis lies on wind and wave facts. moreover, a few attribute info on air and sea tempera­ ture, cloud disguise, precipitation, visibility and sea point strain are given. in regards to the observations of the lightvessels the book might be consi­ dered as a continuation of prior paintings. It additionally concludes the period of observations made by way of staff on board lightvessels, which progressively resulted in the 1970's. The observations on fastened structures that are now exchanging the observations of the lightvessels are of a rather assorted personality. the knowledge are in keeping with observations made on board lightvessels through the interval zero 1949 -1980 and voluntary gazing ships within the sector among fifty one ON and 60 N through the interval 1961-1980. The observations of the lightvessels were in comparison with these released for prior sessions (1859 -1883, 1884 -1909 and 1910 -1940). The manuscript (or a part of it) has been significantly tested by way of Prof.Dr.Ir. J.A. Battjes, E. Bouws, Dr.Ir. J.A. Buishand, H.A.M. Geurts, Dr. GJ.Komen, Dr. G.P.

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Additional info for North Sea Climate: based on observations from ships and lightvessels

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3 ° 515 o. 495 391 284 Figure 24 Upper fig= exceedance % Lower fig= number of observations 59 Area % 80 03 -I' ++ ..... ' ~ _. -. -. ~~ V . % J F M A M J J A SON 0 '-' . V~ 1 km Year ,--_ N;o6/8 ....... _--'" r __ 20 o Area V ;010 km - 60 =-= R N ~2I8 - -. _ ... • V ~ 1 km ,.... .... ' ,. ,-'-;c. •. ,. "-'-'. _. •. •. •. •. •. _ V " 1 km % 80 60 18 15 20 o _. ___ N ,,218 20 o , .. /' ........ - .... -... _ .... • V < 1 km Figure 25a Annual variation of the frequency of occurrence of visibilities (V) < 1 kIn and ;;::: 10 km, cloud cover (N) ::; 2/8 and;;::: 6/8 and of precipitation (R) for the subareas 03,07,09,11,15 and 18 indicated in figure 1.

The equivalent velocities for the Beaufort estimates of the wind force at sea. KNMI Mededelingen en Verhandelingen 66, 's-Gravenhage. G. Verploegh (1961). On the accuracy and the interpretation of wave observations from selected ships. Wotking paper, CMM Wotking group for Technical problems. Geneve. G. Verploegh (1967). Observation and analysis of the surface wind over the ocean. KNMI Mededelingen en Verhandelingen 89, 's-Gravenhage. 31 Appendix 1 Beaufort scale of wind force for reporting wind at sea.

Because the sequential data are not statistically independent, it is not allowed to assume that the duration of an exceedance is equal to the sampling period. This assumption would lead to an over-estimate of the return value. 5 hours. After extrapolation of known durations of less extreme conditions this seems a realistic estimate. 30 References E. Bouws (1978). Wind and wave climate in the Netherlands sector of the North Sea between 53° and 54° north latitude. KNMI scientific reports WR 78-9.

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North Sea Climate: based on observations from ships and lightvessels by C.G. Korevaar

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